INTRODUCTION: Capsular contracture is among the main complications of surgeries involving breast implants. The most commonly used classification to assess the degree of contracture is the Baker grading system, which divides contractures into grades I, II, III, and IV. Of these, grade III and IV contractures are considered significant. Although several causes have been postulated, the etiology of capsular contracture remains uncertain. Conventional treatment for contracture is based on a surgical approach, specifically capsulotomy or capsulectomy. These procedures, however, are not exempt from morbidity, and patients may develop complications such as dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, pneumothorax, asymmetry, and contracture recurrence. This study provides a review of alternatives to conventional surgery described in the literature.
METHODS: We researched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases using the following keywords: "capsular contracture", "capsular contracture treatment", and "capsular contracture breast treatment". We identified 991 articles from which we selected those discussing medication options for contracture treatment other than capsulectomy and capsulotomy.
RESULTS: We identified several studies in which drugs, most commonly zafirlukast, were used to reduce capsular contracture.
CONCLUSION: Among the various reported drugs, zafirlukast exhibited good efficacy and a low rate of complication. Triamcinolone also appears to be a good option, although professional assistance would be needed for drug administration via infiltration. The other drugs described would require further investigation.
Keywords: Contracture; Capsular; Drugs; Treatment.